Camden Haven High School Library

Referencing Guide

Guided Inquiry

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Referencing Guide

In addition to having a bibliography at the end of your work, you may also be expected to acknowledge your information sources in the body of your work. You do this by inserting in-text citations or footnotes.

Information about in-text citations appears below, for footnoting follow the UNSW guidelines and see All My Own Work for more on referencing.

In-text citations

You need to include in-text citations in the body of your work and a bibliography at the end.

The in-text citations must include:

  1. Author's last name
  2. Year of publication
  3. Page number

Self-harm is a significant issue for "about 12% of young people in Australia report having self-harmed" (Healey, 2012. p11).

Healey (2012, p11) reports that "about 12% of young people in Australia report having self-harmed".

  • In text citations should be presented in a consistent style throughout a document.
  • In text citations within brackets should be placed at the end of a sentence before the concluding punctuation. If, however, the citation refers to only part of a sentence, it should be placed at the end of the clause or phrase to which it relates. When the author's name forms part of the sentence the citation is placed directly after the author's name.
  • Use the author's family name (no initials) and the year of publication for in text citations e.g. (Smith 2008). Initials are only used when two or more authors have the same family name. e.g. (Smith, JB 2008) and (Smith, MA 1999). If a work has no author the title and year of publication should be used in the citation.
  • When the author's name forms part of the sentence only the year (and page number if necessary) is included in brackets. e.g. Smith (2008, p.48) claimed that ...
  • Give specific page numbers for quotations in the text and include a complete reference in the reference list. e.g. "The results were confirmed during the trial" (Hong 2001, p.15)
  • If more than one reference is used at the same point in the text they are included in the same set of brackets, ordered alphabetically by author name and separated by a semi-colon (Coats 2005; Ng & Hong 2003).

University of Melbourne. 2014. Harvard general style notes. Viewed 20.8.14

Indirect citation (their ideas, your words)

Put the ideas into your own words (paraphrase) and acknowledge the source of the information.

Author's name as part of the sentence:

  • Bloggs (1996) argues that intervention early in the process is essential.
  • Anders and Wilson (1993) identify three main ways in which interference typically occurs.
  • Fisher, King and Lyle (1997) define adolescence as the decade between childhood and maturity.
  • Topical treatment was popular in the 1970s (Bruin, 1989).

Author's name NOT included in the sentence:

  • Mental health is defined by societal norms (Fisher, King & Lyle, 1997).
  • Adolescence, defined by some as the decade between childhood and maturity (Fisher et al., 1997), is a period of rapid change for young people.
  • Topical treatment was popular in the 1970s (Bruin, 1989).

Direct quotation (their ideas, their words)

Use quotations sparingly and paraphrase wherever possible.

If you can express the idea in your own words, you are more likely to convince the lecturer that you have understood what you have read. Direct quotations can be used if you...

  • cannot paraphrase using fewer words than the original,
  • cannot paraphrase without distorting the meaning,
  • wish to discuss the exact words used in the source - for example to analyse a definition or to critique perceived bias, OR...
  • if the original wording is particularly memorable, witty or appropriate.

If you must quote, then do so briefly.

N.B. An essay full of direct quotation will not be marked as highly as one in which the writer has transformed the ideas into different words and created an individual point of view from those ideas.

Essays that consist largely of strings of quotations are unacceptable.

  1. All direct quotations must be accurately reproduced (using the exact words), and page numbers must be included in your citation:
    • Bloggs (1996, p.24) argues that "although such intervention is essential, it is nowadays neglected".
  2. An ellipsis (3 dots ...) can be used to indicate that part of the original passage has been omitted:
    (If quotations are short, two lines or so, they can be incorporated into the text, but must be enclosed within quotation marks).
    • A modern slant on the old tale is that "Samson needed that cut ... to see in new ways" (Jones & Byron, 1992, p. 248).
  3. Quotations longer than three lines should be indented; quotation marks are not used in this case:

    Another situation occurs when the subtypes are nonexclusive. In other words, the subtypes may overlap in ways that may cause an iteration or recursion.
    Joiner et al. 1998.

Copied from : University of Melbourne. 2008. In-text citations. Viewed 27/04/2010.